师资队伍 >
雷慧闽
副教授 博导
Email: leihm@tsinghua.edu.cn
电话:010-62783383
传真:010-62796971
通信地址:北京市海淀区350vip葡京集团新水利馆324室
邮编:100084
教育背景
2005~2011,350vip葡京集团水利水电工程系,水利工程,博士
2001~2005,350vip葡京集团水利水电工程系,水利水电建筑工程,学士
工作履历
? 2017/08~现在,副教授、博导,350vip葡京集团水利水电工程系
? 2016/08~2017/07,助理教授、博导,350vip葡京集团水利水电工程系
? 2013/07~2016/07,讲师,350vip葡京集团水利水电工程系
? 2012/07~2013/03,访问学者, 美国太平洋西北国家实验室大气科学及全球变化部
? 2011/07~2013/06,博士后, 350vip葡京集团水利水电工程系
开设课程
1) 本科生课程《农田水文与灌溉排水》
2) 研究生课程《生态水文学》
研究领域
水碳通量变化机理
流域生态水文过程与流域生态水文模型
农田耗水与作物生长机理
作物模型与灌溉预报
流域分布式水文模型和洪水模拟
科研项目
1) 博士后基金一等项目“黄河中下游地区不同典型植被条件下生态水文过程机理研究”,2011~2013年
2) 国家自然科学基金青年基金项目“北方典型农田水热传输过程与作物生长的耦合机理及其模拟”(51209117),2013~2015年
3) 十二五国家科技支撑计划课题:南水北调大型跨(穿)河建筑物运行风险识别和预警关键技术研究与示范(2015BAB07B07)(专题负责人(大型跨(穿)河建筑物洪水预警技术))(项目名称:南水北调中东线工程运行管理关键技术及应用)2015.4.1~2017.12.31
4) “水资源高效开发利用”重点专项项目“黄河流域水沙变化机理与趋势预测”的第4课题“沟道工程对流域水沙变化影响及其贡献率”(2016YFC0402404,专题负责人:沟道工程调峰消能机理与模拟),2016/7~2020/6
5) 国家自然科学基金面上项目“华北平原极端天气气候下作物生长对蒸散发的调节机理研究”(51679120),2017~2020年
6) 国家自然科学基金面上项目“温带半干旱草原生态水文过程变化机理及其对荒漠化的影响”(51979139),2020~2023年
7) 国家自然科学基金优秀青年基金项目“流域生态水文学”(51922063),2020~2022年
奖励与荣誉
? 2015年,2015年度高等学校科学研究自然科学一等奖:变化环境下流域生态水文响应机理与规律,排名第四;
? 2011年,350vip葡京集团优秀博士学位论文(一等奖);
? 2011年,350vip葡京集团优秀博士毕业生。
学术成果
SCI检索:
[1] Beijing Fang, Huimin Lei*, Yucui Zhang, Quan Quan, Dawen Yang, Spatio-temporal patterns of evapotranspiration based on upscaling eddy covariance measurements in the dryland of the North China Plain, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, accepted.
[2] Di Long*, Liangliang,Bai, La Yan, Caijin, Zhang, Wenting, Yang, Huimin Lei, Jinling Quan*, Xianyong Meng, Chunxiang Shi, 2019, Generation of spatially complete and daily continuous surface soil moisture of high spatial resolution, Remote Sensing of Environment, 233, 111364.
[3] Guanheng Zheng, Yuting Yang, Dawen Yang*, Baptiste Dafflon, Huimin Lei, Hanbo Yang, 2019, Satellite-based simulation of soil freezing/thawing processes in the northeast Tibetan Plateau, Remote Sensing of Environment, 231, 15, 111269.
[4] Lexin Zhang, Huimin Lei*, Hong Shen, Zhentao Cong, Dawen Yang, Tingxi Liu, 2019, Evaluating the representation of vegetation phenology in the Community Land model 4.5 in a temperate grassland, Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences, 124, doi: 10.1029/2018JG004866.
[5] Weiwei Lu, Huimin Lei, Dawen Yang*, Lihua Tang, Qinghua Miao, 2018, Quantifying the impacts of small dam construction on hydrological alterations in the Jiulong River Basin of Southeast China. Journal of Hydrology, 567:382-392.
[6] Zheng, G., Yang, H., Lei, H., Yang, D., Wang, T., & Qin, Y. (2018). Development of a physically based soil albedo parameterization for the Tibetan Plateau. Vadose Zone Journal, 17(1).
[7] Xing Yuan, Yang Jiao, Dawen Yang, Huimin Lei, 2018. Reconciling the Attribution of Changes in Streamflow Extremes from a Hydroclimate Perspective. Water Resources Research, DOI10.1029/2018WR022714.
[8] Waseem Muhammad, Hanbo Yang, Huimin Lei* , Ajmal Muhammad and Dawen Yang, 2018, Improving the Regional Applicability of Satellite Precipitation Products by Ensemble Algorithm, Remote Sens., 10, 577; doi:10.3390/rs10040577.
[9] Shuilei Zhang, Dawen Yang*, Yuting Yang, Shilong Piao, Hanbo Yang, Huimin Lei, Bojie Fu, 2018. Excessive afforestation and soil drying on China’s Loess Plateau, Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 123(3), 923-935.
[10] Ijaz Ahmad, Muhammad Waseem, Huimin Lei, Hanbo Yang, Dawen Yang. Harmonious Level Indexing for Ascertainment of Human-Water Relationship, Environmental Earth Sciences (2018) 77:125.
[11] Yucui Zhang, Huimin Lei, Wenguang Zhao, Yanjun Shen, Dengpan Xiao, Comparison of the water budget for the typical cropland and pear orchard ecosystems in the North China Plain, Agricultural Water Management, 2018, 198:53-64.
[12] Huimin Lei*, Tingting Gong, Yuchui Zhang, Dawen Yang, Biological factors dominate the interannual variability of evapotranspiration in an irrigated cropland in the North China Plain, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 2018, 250-251:262-276.
[13] Sheng, M., Lei, H.*, Jiao, Y., & Yang, D. (2017). Evaluation of the runoff and river routing schemes in the Community Land Model of the Yellow River basin. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 9. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017MS001026.
[14] Qining Shen, Zhentao Cong, Huimin Lei*. Evaluating the impact of climate and underlying surface on runoff change within Budyko framework: a study across 224 catchments in China, Journal of Hydrology, 554: 251-262.
[15] Yang Jiao, Huimin Lei*, Dawen Yang, Maoyi Huang, Dengfeng Liu, Xing Yuan, 2017. Impact of vegetation dynamics on hydrological processes in a semi-arid basin by using a land surface-hydrology coupled model, Journal of Hydrology, 551:116-131.
[16] Fang, Yuanyuan; Michalak, Anna; Schwalm, Christopher; Huntzinger, Deborah; Berry, Joseph; Ciais, Philippe; Piao, Shilong; Poulter, Benjamin; Fisher, Joshua; Cook, Robert; Hayes, Daniel; Huang, Maoyi; Ito, Akihiko; Jain, Atul; Lei, Huimin; Lu, Chaoqun; Mao, Jiafu; Parazoo, Nicholas; Peng, Shushi; Ricciuto, Daniel; Shi, Xiaoying; Tao, Bo; Tian, Hanqin; Wang, Weile; Wei, Y; Yang, Jia, 2017, Global land carbon sink response to temperature and precipitation varies with ENSO phase, Environmental Research Letters 12(6):064007.
[17] Huntzinger, D.N.*, A. M. Michalak, C. Schwalm, P. Ciais, A.W. King, Y. Fang, K. Schaefer, Y. Wei, R.B. Cook, J.B. Fisher, D. Hayes, M. Huang, A. Ito, A. K. Jain, H. Lei, C. Lu, F. Maignan, J. Mao, N. Parazoo, S. Peng, B. Poulter, D. Ricciuto, X. Shi, H. Tian, W. Wang, N. Zeng, F. Zhao, Uncertainty in the response of terrestrial carbon sink to environmental drivers undermines carbon-climate feedback predictions, Scientific Reports, 7: 4765, DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-03818-2.
[18] Chen, Z., Lei, H., Yang, H., Yang, D., and Cao, Y.: Historical and future trends in wetting and drying in 291 catchments across China, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2233-2248, doi:10.5194/hess-21-2233-2017, 2017.
[19] Cong, Z., Shahid, M., Zhang, D., Lei, H., & Yang, D. (2017). Attribution of runoff change in the alpine basin: a case study of the Heihe Upstream Basin, China. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 1-16.
[20] Gong, T., Lei, H.*, Yang, D., Jiao, Y., and Yang, H.: Monitoring the variations of evapotranspiration due to land use/cover change in a semiarid shrubland, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 863-877, doi:10.5194/hess-21-863-2017, 2017.
[21] Yue Qin, Huimin Lei, Dawen Yang*, et al., 2016, Long-term change in the depth of seasonally frozen ground and its ecohydrological impacts in the Qilian Mountains, northeastern Tibetan Plateau, Journal of Hydrology, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.09.008.
[22] Wang Ai, Tang Lihua, Yang Dawen, Lei Huimin, 2016, Spatial-temporal variation of net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs in the upper Yangtze River basin from 1990 to 2012. Science China: Earth Sciences, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11430-016-0014-6.
[23] ITO, Akihiko et al. Decadal trends in the seasonal-cycle amplitude of terrestrial CO2 exchange resulting from the ensemble of terrestrial biosphere models. Tellus B, [S.l.], v. 68, may. 2016. ISSN 1600-0889.
[24] Wang, S., Lei, H*., Duan, L., Liu, T., & Yang, D. (2016). Attribution of the vegetation trends in a typical desertified watershed of northeast China over the past three decades. Ecohydrology, 9(8), 1566-1579.
[25] Mao, J., Fu, W., Shi, X., Ricciuto, D. M., Fisher, J. B., Dickinson, R. E., Lei, H... & Zhu, Z. (2015). Disentangling climatic and anthropogenic controls on global terrestrial evapotranspiration trends. Environmental Research Letters, 10(9), 094008.
[26] Yanlan Liu, Huimin Lei*, (2015). Responses of Natural Vegetation Dynamics to Climate Drivers in China from 1982 to 2011, Remote Sensing, 7(8), 10243-10268; doi:10.3390/rs70810243.
[27] Mo K., Cong Z., Lei H., 2015, Optimal vegetation cover in the Horqin Sands, China, Ecohydrology, doi: 10.1002/eco.1668.
[28] Xu, K., Yang, D., Xu, X., & Lei, H. (2015). Copula based drought frequency analysis considering the spatio-temporal variability in Southwest China. Journal of Hydrology, 527: 630-640.
[29] Schwalm, C. R., D. N. Huntinzger, J. B. Fisher, A. M. Michalak, K. Bowman, P. Cias, R. Cook, B. El-Masri, D. Hayes, M. Huang, A. Ito, A. Jain, A. W. King, H. Lei, J. Liu, C. Lu, J. Mao, S. Peng, B. Poulter, D. Ricciuto, K. Schaefer, X. Shi, B. Tao, H. Tian, W. Wang, Y. Wei, J. Yang, and N. Zeng (2015), Toward “optimal” integration of terrestrial biosphere models. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, doi: 10.1002/2015GL064002.
[30] Tian H., and co-authors, (2015), Global Patterns and controls of soil organic carbon dynamics as simulated by multiple terrestrial biosphere models: current status and future directions, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 29, doi:10.1002/2014GB005021.
[31] Yang D W, Gao B, Jiao Y, Lei H. 2015. A distributed scheme developed for eco-hydrological modeling in the upper Heihe River. Science China: Earth Sciences, doi: 10.1007/s11430-014-5029-7.
[32] Lei, H, Yang, D, Yang, H, Yuan, Z, and Lv, H (2015), Simulated impacts of irrigation on evapotranspiration in a strongly exploited region: a case study of the Haihe River basin, China. Hydrol. Process., 29(12), 2704–2719. doi: 10.1002/hyp.10402.
[33] Qin, Y., Yang, D., Lei, H.,Xu, K., Xu, X., 2014. Comparative analysis of drought based on precipitation and soil moisture indices in Haihe basin of North China during the period of 1960-2010. Journal of Hydrology, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.09.068.
[34] Zscheischler, J., Michalak, A. M., Schwalm, C., Mahecha, M. D., Huntzinger, D. N., Reichstein, M., Berthier, G., Ciais, P., Cook, R. B., EI-Masri, B., Huang, M., Ito, A., Jain, A., King, A., Lei, H. ... & Zeng, N. (2014). Impact of large‐scale climate extremes on biospheric carbon fluxes: An intercomparison based on MsTMIP data. Global Biogeochemical Cycles.
[35] Lei Huimin, Maoyi Huang, L. Ruby Leung, et al., (2014), Sensitivity of global terrestrial gross primary production to hydrologic states simulated by the Community Land Model using two runoff parameterizations, Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 06(3):658-679, doi:10.1002/2013MS000252.
[36] Lei Huimin, Yang Dawen, Huang Maoyi, (2014), Impacts of climate change and vegetation dynamics on runoff in the mountainous region of the Haihe River basin in the past five decades, Journal of Hydrology, 511,786-799.
[37] Xu, X., Yang, D., Yang, H., & Lei, H. (2014). Attribution analysis based on the Budyko hypothesis for detecting the dominant cause of runoff decline in Haihe basin. Journal of Hydrology. 510, 530–540.
[38] Zhen Liu, Ray P. Bambha, Joseph P. Pinto, Tao Zeng, Jim Boylan, Maoyi Huang, Huimin Lei, Chun Zhao, Shishi Liu, Jiafu Mao, Christopher R. Schwalm, Xiaoying Shi, Yaxing Wei, Hope A. Michelsen, 2014. Toward verifying fossil fuel CO2 emissions with the CMAQ model: Motivation, model description and initial simulation, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 64 (4), 419-435, doi:10.1080/10962247.2013.816642.
[39] Lei Huimin, Yang Dawen. 2014. Combining crop coefficient of winter wheat and summer maize with remotely-sensed vegetation index for estimating evapotranspiration in the North China Plain. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering. 19(1), 243–251.
[40] Huntzinger, D. N., Schwalm, C., Michalak, A. M., Schaefer, K., King, A. W., Wei, Y., Jacobson, A., Liu, S., Cook, R. B., Post, W. M., Berthier, G., Hayes, D., Huang, M., Ito, A., Lei, H., Lu, C., Mao, J., Peng, C. H., Peng, S., Poulter, B., Riccuito, D., Shi, X., Tian, H., Wang, W., Zeng, N., Zhao, F., and Zhu, Q.: The North American Carbon Program Multi-Scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project – Part 1: Overview and experimental design, Geosci. Model Dev., 2013, 6, 2121-2133, doi:10.5194/gmd-6-2121-2013, 2013.
[41] Leng, G., Huang, M., Tang, Q., Sacks, W. J., Lei, H., & Leung, L. R. (2013). Modeling the effects of irrigation on land surface fluxes and states over the conterminous United States: Sensitivity to input data and model parameters. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118(17), 9789-9803.
[42] Shen, Y., Zhang, Y., R Scanlon, B., Lei, H., Yan, D., & Yang, F. (2013). Energy/water budgets and productivity of the typical croplands irrigated with groundwater and surface water in the North China Plain. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 181, 133-142.
[43] Zhang, Q., Lei, H. M.*, & Yang, D. W. (2013). Seasonal variations in soil respiration, heterotrophic respiration and autotrophic respiration of a wheat and maize rotation cropland in the North China Plain. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 180, 34-43.
[44] YANG, D. W., CHEN, H., & LEI, H. M. (2013). Analysis of the Diurnal Pattern of Evaporative Fraction and Its Controlling Factors over Croplands in the Northern China. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 12(8), 1316-1329.
[45] Lei, H., Yang, D., Cai, J., & Wang, F. (2013). Long-term variability of the carbon balance in a large irrigated area along the lower Yellow River from 1984 to 2006. Science China Earth Sciences, 56(4), 671-683.
[46] Lei Huimin, Dawen Yang, Yanjun Shen, Yu Liu, and Yucui Zhang. 2011. Simulation of evapotranspiration and carbon dioxide flux in the wheat-maize rotation croplands of the North China Plain using the Simple Biosphere Model. Hydrological Processes, 25(20): 3107-3120.
[47] Lei Huimin, Dawen Yang, E. Lokupitiya, and Yanjun Shen. 2010. Coupling land surface and crop growth models for predicting evapotranspiration and carbon exchange in wheat-maize rotation croplands. Biogeosciences, 7, 3363-3375.
[48] Lei Huimin and Yang Dawen, 2010. Seasonal and interannual variations in carbon dioxide exchange over a cropland in the North China Plain. Global Change Biology, 16, 2944-2957.
[49] Lei Huimin and Yang Dawen, 2010. Interannual and seasonal variability in evapotranspiration and energy partitioning over an irrigated cropland in the North China Plain. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 150, 581-589.
[50] Yang Dawen, Chen He and Lei Huimin, 2010. Estimation of evapotranspiration using a remote sensing model over agriculture land in the North China Plain. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 31(14), 3783-3798.
[51] Lei Huimin, Yang Dawen, Stanislaus J. Schymanski and Murugesu Sivapalan, 2008. Modeling the crop transpiration using an optimality-based approach. Science in China Series E, 51, Supp. II, 60-75.

EI检索:
[1] 王思如, 雷慧闽*, 段利民, 等, 2017, 气候变化对科尔沁沙地蒸散发和植被的影响, 水利学报, 48(5): 535-550.(EI)
[2] 战 领,杨汉波,雷慧闽. 基于通量观测数据的玉米水碳交换量及水分利用效率分析[J]. 农业工程学报,2016,32(Supp.1):88-93. (EI)
[3] 王宇涵, 杨大文, 雷慧闽, 杨汉波, 冰冻圈水文过程对黑河上游径流的影响分析, 2015(46), 1064-1071.
[4] 张树磊, 杨大文, 杨汉波, 雷慧闽. 1960—2010 年中国主要流域径流量减小原因探讨分析. 水科学进展, 2015(05). http://www.cnki.net/kcms/detail/32.1309.P.20150821.1730.002.html.
[5] 张权, 杨大文, 雷慧闽, 薄宏波, 蔡建峰, 华北平原典型冬小麦农田土壤呼吸日内变化规律, 350vip葡京集团学报, 2015, 55(1):33-38.
[6] 杨汉波, 吕华芳, 胡庆芳, 雷慧闽, 杨大文,2014, 华北平原的大气逆辐射参数化方法比较, 350vip葡京集团学报, 54(5): 590-595.
[7] Li Zhiwei, Yang Dawen, Lei Huimin, 2012. Evapotranspiration model based on the maximum entropy production principle. Journal of Tsinghua University (Sci & Tech), 52(6): 785-790. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[8] Ma Huan, Yang Dawen, Lei Huimin, et al. 2011. Application and improvement of Hydrus-1D model for analyzing water cycle in an agricultural field. Transactions of the CSAE, 27(3): 6-12. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[9] Lei Huimin, Yang Dawen, Liu Yu. 2011. Comparison of the sensible heat flux measurements on different spatial scales in an irrigated cropland. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 42(2): 136-142. (in Chinese with English abstract) (雷慧闽, 杨大文, 刘钰. 灌区不同空间尺度显热通量测定方法的对比分析. 水利学报, 2011, 42(2): 136-142. (EI检索))
[10] Yang Dawen, Lei Huimin*, Cong Zhentao, 2010. Overview of the study on interaction between the hydrological processes and vegetation in catchment. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 41(10), 8-15. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[11] Yang Hanbo, Yang Dawen, Lei Zhidong, Lei Huimin. 2008. Derivation and validation of watershed coupled water-energy balance equation at arbitrary time scale. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 39(5): 610–617. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[12] Lei Huimin, Yang Dawen, Shen Yanjun, et al., 2007. Energy and water fluxes in the Yellow River irrigation region. Journal of Tsinghua University (Science & Technology), 47(6), 801-804. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[13] Shen Yanjun, Lei Huimin, Yang Dawen, et al., 2011. Effects of agricultural activities on nitrate contamination of groundwater in a Yellow River irrigated region, IAHS Publ. 348:73-80.
[14] Lei Huimin, Yang Dawen, Liu Xinbing, et al. 2007. Analysis of water resource variability over the irrigated area along the downstream reach of the yellow river. IAHS-AISH Publication, n 313. Quantification and Reduction of Predictive Uncertainty for Sustainable Water Resources Management, p 286-293.
[15] Yi Yonghong, Yang Dawen, Lei Huimin, et al. 2007. Assessing crop water deficit using MODIS data during winter wheat growing period along the lower reaches of the Yellow River, China. IAHS-AISH Publication, n 316, Remote Sensing for Environmental Monitoring and Change Detection, p 199-206.
其他:
[1] 焦阳,雷慧闽,杨大文,杨汉波,基于生态水文模型的无定河流域径流变化归因,水力发电学报. 2017, 36(7):34-44.
[2] 王婧, 刘廷玺, 雷慧闽, 等, 2016, 基于涡度相关的半干旱区沙丘- 草甸水热通量对比分析, 干旱区研究, 33(3): 593-600.
[3] 王婧, 刘廷玺, 雷慧闽*, 张圣微, 段利民, 2015, 科尔沁草甸生态系统净碳交换特征及其驱动因子, 草业学报, 24(11): 10-19.
[4] Zhang, S., Zhao, H., Lei, H., Shao, H., & Liu, T. (2015). Winter Wheat Water Productivity Evaluated by the Developed Remote Sensing Evapotranspiration Model in Hebei Plain, China. The Scientific World Journal, 2015.
[5] Gong, T.T., H. M. Lei*, D. W. Yang, Y. Jiao, and H. B. Yang, Effects of vegetation change on evapotranspiration in a semiarid shrubland of the Loess Plateau, China. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 11, 13571–13605, 2014
[6] 龚婷婷, 雷慧闽*, 焦阳, 杨汉波, 杨大文, 2015, 黄土高原农牧交错带典型自然植被生态系统的地表能量特征研究, 应用生态学报,26(6):1625-1633.
[7] 贾恪, 刘廷玺, 雷慧闽*, 等, 2015. 科尔沁沙地沙丘-草甸相间地区1986-2013年湖泊演变. 中国沙漠, 35(3):783-791.
[8] 吕华芳, 杨汉波, 丛振涛, 雷慧闽. 基于PLC控制的室内降雨入渗自动测定系统. 农业机械学报, 2014
[9] 冯保清, 雷慧闽, 吕华芳, 2013. 位山灌区冬小麦及夏玉米群体水分利用效率分析. 灌溉排水学报, 32(3), 29-32.
[10] 吕华芳, 雷慧闽, 杨大文, 等, 2013, 华北平原大型灌区生态水文综合观测网络设计, 实验技术与管理, 30, 26-33.
[11] 雷慧闽, 蔡建峰, 杨大文, 等, 2012, 黄河下游大型引黄灌区蒸散发长期变化特性,水利水电科技进展, 32(1), 13-17.
[12] 丛振涛, 杨静, 雷慧闽, 冯保清, 2011. 位山灌区四水转化模型模拟研究, 人民黄河, 33(3), 70-72.
[13] 唐莉华, 雷慧闽, 刘新兵, 等, 2010, 位山灌区农业活动对地下水水质的影响, 水资源保护, 26(5), 33-37.

教材及专著:
[1] 杨大文, 杨汉波, 雷慧闽, 流域水文学, 2014, 北京: 350vip葡京集团出版社.
[2] Peter S. Eagleson, 2002. Ecohydrology: Darwinian expression of vegetation form and function, Cambridge University Press. (Trans., Yang Dawen, Cong Zhentao, 2008. Lei Huimin, Chapter 3, Radiant fluxes)
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